In the New York Times, Sunday National, page 22, article: “Endless Wars Gripe Resounds for Those Who Fought Them,” ( https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/01/us/politics/veterans-trump-iraq-afghanistan.html) examines how those who went to revenge the September 11th World Trade Center attack are disillusioned by the lack of progress in Iraq and Afghanistan after 18 years, billions of dollars and thousands of American and Arab lives. Time to change the military’s focus on short term military victory for long term countries management, like MacArthur’s administration over Japan after WWII or face further disillusionment in the ranks. Not good for an all-volunteer military. This means after the fighting, establishing social and economic order to preserve legal rights and economic opportunities between warring factions. Iraq and Afghanistan are not just quick, “in and out” fights but interfering with and management of religious and social conflicts between the Shiites and Sunnis as well as other festering social sores like the Kurds losing their country divided up after WWI. Victory needs to be redefined in an age of chaos to include social and economic management of the various combatants. After they learn to get along, then we can leave, but there is no swift victory in the Middle East.